If you cannot prove you are in the U.S. legally, you will not be able to renew your Texas Driver's License.
On June 28, 2011, a law relating to requirements for obtaining or renewing a Texas Driver's License was approved by the Texas Legislature.This law is a further clarification of a 2008 law, and policies and procedures that the Texas DPS has been using since the 2008 law.
Those applicants who are U.S. citizens and already have their social security numbers on file with the DPS will probably not be affected by these changes.
Non-citizens, such as temporary visitors, will need to show that they are here legally. This means that their visas have not expired. For instance if someone came in to the U.S. legally and can prove this, but has overstayed and is on an expired visa, they would be denied.
The law could be a problem for those who are here legally, but can't prove it. For instance, persons born in the U.S. but delivered by a midwife, or those in specific situations that require clerks to view documents and interpret immigration law.
There is also a concern that this new law may result in more people driving without a current license and without liability insurance.